Kidney Dysplasia Diagnosis and Treatment

What is kidney dysplasia?

Kidney dysplasia refers to a condition where the internal structures of one or more of the fetus’ kidneys don’t develop normally during pregnancy. Two thin tubes of muscle, called ureters, grow into the kidneys. They then branch out to form tiny structures called tubules. As the fetus grows, the tubules absorb urine. The tubules don’t branch completely in it. The urine that would normally flow through the tubules blocks them from flowing freely. Cysts form from fluid-filled sacs when urine builds up in the kidneys. Cysts can replace normal kidney tissue and stop the kidney functioning.

One kidney can be affected or both. Most babies born to a child with severe kidney disease affecting both of their kidneys do not survive. The following may be necessary for those who survive:

  • blood-filtering treatments called dialysis
  • a kidney transplant

If the dysplasia is in one of their kidneys, they will have normal kidney function. For a few years, those with mild dysplasia in one or both of their kidneys will not require dialysis or a transplant.

What do the kidneys do?

Two kidneys of bean-shaped shape are found in the body. Each is about the same size as a fist. They are located below the rib cage and one on each side. Each day, the kidneys filter approximately 120 to 150 quarts blood to produce 1 to 2 quarts urine. This is made up of extra fluid and wastes. Children produce less urine than adults, but the amount depends on how old they are. Two ureters connect the bladder to the kidneys. One on each side. The bladder stores urine. While the bladder is full, the bladder’s muscles remain relaxed. The bladder fills up to its capacity and signals to the brain signal to the brain to locate a toilet quickly. The bladder fills up and urine is released through the tube known as the urethra. It is located at the bottom.

What causes kidney dysplasia

Kidney dysplasia can be caused by genetic factors. The genes pass information between parents and the child, and they determine the child’s characteristics. Sometimes, the parents might pass on a mutation or change to their child’s gene, which can lead to kidney dysplasia. Multiple body systems may be affected by genetic syndromes, which can lead to kidney dysplasia. A syndrome is a combination of symptoms and conditions that appear unrelated but are believed to share the same genetic cause. A baby born with kidney disease due to a genetic condition might also have problems in the digestive system, nervous system, blood vessels, muscles, skeleton, and other parts of their urinary tract.

Kidney dysplasia can also be caused by kidney disease if a baby’s mother uses certain prescription drugs during pregnancy. These medications include those used to treat high blood pressure and seizures. Kidney dysplasia can also be caused by the unborn baby’s mother’s use during pregnancy of illegal drugs such as cocaine.

Is kidney dysplasia common?

It is common for kidney dysplasia to occur. Scientists estimate that kidney dysplasia affects approximately one in four babies. The condition is not always diagnosed in all cases.

Read Also: Ureteral Stent Placement Guide

Who is more likely develop kidney dysplasia than others?

These babies are more at risk of developing kidney dysplasia.

  • Parents who have the genetic characteristics for the condition.
  • Certain genetic syndromes that affect multiple systems of the body
  • Women whose mothers took prescription drugs or illegal drugs during pregnancy

What are the symptoms of kidney dysplasia

Many children with kidney dysplasia affecting only one kidney don’t show any symptoms. Sometimes, pain may result from an enlarged kidney at birth.

Complications Associated

Kidney dysplasia can lead to complications such as

  • Hydronephrosis in the working kidney. A baby who has kidney dysplasia may have only one kidney. When other defects in the urinary tract block the flow of urine, the urine backs up and causes the kidneys and ureters to swell, a condition called hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis, if left untreated can cause damage to the kidneys and decrease its ability to filter blood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), and kidney failure can result from kidney damage.
  • a urinary tract infection (UTI). UTIs can be more common in babies with a urine blockage. Recurring UTIs may also cause kidney damage.
  • High blood pressure
  • There is a slight increase in the chance of developing renal cancer.

How to diagnosed?

A fetal ultrasound (also known as a fetal sonogram) may help to diagnose kidney disease in a woman’s pregnancies. A transducer is a device that emits sound waves from organs to create images of their structure. Ultrasound uses this device. Fetal ultrasound determine the foetus in the womb in pregnancy. This procedure performed by a specially train radiologist in hospital.. An obstetrician and radiologist then interpret the images. Radiologist is a specialist in medical imaging. Images can reveal defects in the kidneys or other parts of the urinary tract. It is not something that health care providers always diagnose before a baby is born. Health care providers may diagnose kidney dysplasia after a baby is born. After the baby is born, a health care provider may use ultrasound to diagnose kidney disease.

How to treat kidney dysplasia?

If one kidney affects, then no treatment required. Regular checkups is enough.

  • Check your blood pressure.
  • testing blood to measure kidney function.
  • Albumin is a protein, found in blood, if its present in urine that’s the sign of kidney damage.
  • Periodic ultrasounds monitor damage to the kidney and ensure the kidney health..

How can prevented?

Researchers have yet to find a way that prevents kidney dysplasia due to genetic factors or certain syndromes. Pregnant women can avoid it by not taking prescription drugs or illegal drugs during pregnancy. Before taking any medication during pregnancy, pregnant women should consult their doctor.

What are the long-term prospects for a child who has kidney dysplasia in one of their kidneys?

A child with kidney dysplasia is a condition that affects only one kidney. The long-term outlook is generally positive. A person with one working kidney, a condition called solitary kidney, can grow normally and may have few, if any, health problems. As the child grows, the affected kidney might shrink. The affected kidney may disappear from x-rays or ultrasound by age 10. Both adults and children who have one kidney function in body examined regularly for high blood pressure or kidney damage. Kidney transplants or dialysis may be necessary for children with kidney disease.

What are the long-term prospects for a child who has kidney dysplasia in both of their kidneys?

A child with kidney dysplasia of both kidneys has a different outlook than a child who has one. A child with kidney disease in both of his kidneys

  • CKD is more likely in this group.
  • Needs close monitoring with a pediatrician, a doctor who specializes treating children with kidney disease.
  • You may need dialysis or a transplant.

Eating, Nutrition, and Diet

Researchers have not discovered that diet, nutrition, and eating habits play any role in it.

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